The principles dealt with a problem that appears in various forms in the thought of each of the early sociologists, but which is rarely mentioned today, although it appears today in evolutionary approaches to social life. It was about social causality, which consisted of identifying the fundamental forces that helped shape social life and gave rise to its various forms. Giddings` central concept of essence consciousness, although later applied to a variety of topics, arose in the context of this concern for identifying basic motivational forces relevant to social life. In a later book, A Theory of Socialization (1897), he examined the processes by which individuals were socialized by bringing them into contact with others. He restated his position on these issues throughout his career, but never made a meaningful statement about his theoretical position. However, it has shifted from its initial emphasis on the physical conditions of social life, which gave rise to various social forms, to an emphasis on the idea that the effects of even physical living conditions operate through a social means that is itself generated by past conditions. This is how he recognized the importance of tradition. Like some of his contemporaries, however, Giddings was careful not to treat society as a teleological object, but was concerned with what he called the analysis and correlation of moral and social forces, which included the problem of the social response to individual character and the inverse problem of the social effect of individual will; This concern for process shapes his methodical thinking. The reformers also used the scientific methodology of Jeremy Bentham and the utilitarians to design specific reforms, and in particular to provide for government inspections to ensure their successful implementation.  The greatest success of the Reformers was the Reform Act of 1832.  It gave more political power to the emerging urban middle classes, while drastically reducing the power of sparsely populated neighborhoods controlled by wealthy families.
 Despite determined opposition from the House of Lords to the Act, this bill gave the Liberals more parliamentary power while reducing the political power of the working class, leaving them separated from the main middle-class support on which they had relied. Under the Reform Act of 1832, the radical alliance was broken up to the Liberal-Labour alliance of the Edwardian period.  Brookfield (2003) suggests that the goal of transformative learning is the critique of ideology, a process that “helps people expose and challenge dominant ideologies, and then learn to organize social relations according to a non-capitalist logic” (p. 224). Transformation includes not only structural change in the individual, but also structural change in the social world. Similarly, Newman (1994) points out that we should not study the oppressed, but oppression itself. Authors and theorists who advocate social change as a goal of transformative learning (and adult education as a whole) do not reject individual learning and transformation, but consider the educator`s goal to address the social context in which individuals live and learn. (name) A reform movement is a type of social movement that aims to bring about gradual changes or changes in certain aspects of society, rather than rapid or fundamental changes. A reform movement is different from more radical social movements such as revolutionary movements.
His first major work in the field of methodology, Inductive Sociology, has been little read, but has nevertheless been a central text in the history of American sociology. In this book, Giddings listed dozens of concepts and provided numerical measurements for them, or in many cases just definitions that made counting possible. It was a very primitive measure, but the radical importance of this project was obvious. Giddings did not simply adopt the categories of official statistics, but sought to construct a systematic schema of concepts that could be precisely defined or measured. Although Giddings has been familiar with currents of contemporary French sociology, particularly the work of Gabriel Tarde, who may have provided distant inspiration for this project, there is no contemporary example of a comparable large-scale effort to find quantifiable versions of social concepts. Muller had been a socialist since high school. After the founding of the Soviet Union, he switched to Bolshevism. In this capacity, he promoted the social reforms advocated in magazines such as The Masses.
He believed that capitalism was unjust and neglected or rejected equal opportunities for women, minorities and the working classes. At the same time, there was a robust eugenics movement in the United States, founded by a committee of the American Breeder`s Association chaired by David Starr Jordan and supported by Alexander Graham Bell. They established a eugenics station at Cold Spring Harbor with Charles Davenport as director. The eugenics perspective favored by this center was called negative eugenics because it emphasized eliminating undesirable traits from the American population. They used a multifaceted approach to institutionalize the mentally retarded and the mentally ill; They supported the state`s forced sterilization laws, particularly through vasectomy and tubal ligation; And they favored marriage laws that restricted who could marry, based on considerations of eugenics and race. They also advocated restrictive immigration laws, particularly against people from southern and central Europe (especially Jews, Poles, Slavs, Serbs, Italians, and those from Balkan countries), who made up the majority of immigrants who arrived in the United States between the 1890s and World War I (Carlson, 2001).