Abbreviations in Criminal Law

Abbreviations in Criminal Law

Crime – A crime punishable by death or imprisonment in a penitentiary institution. Complaint – (1) In common criminal law language, any allegation that one or more persons have committed one or more criminal offences received by a law enforcement or prosecutorial authority or from a law enforcement authority or received by a court. (2) When using judicial proceedings, a formal document submitted to the court by a prosecutor, law enforcement officer or other person alleging that one or more persons have committed a particular offence and requests prosecution. Judgment – In criminal proceedings, the decision of the jury in a jury trial or a bailiff in a trial without a jury whether or not the accused is guilty or not guilty of the crime for which he or she was tried. Pre-trial detention -n. (1) to enter into detention, so as to deprive a person of his liberty in criminal proceedings; (2) refer a matter from one court to another. Detention – Legally authorized placement of a person who is the subject of criminal or juvenile judicial proceedings until the time of incarceration in a penitentiary institution or until his or her release. habeas corpus – In criminal proceedings, the declaration of claim ordering the person holding a prisoner to bring him before a judicial officer in order to determine the legality of the custodial sentence. Burden of proof – obligation to assert a disputed fact between the parties, since in criminal proceedings the burden of proof lies with the Public Prosecutor`s Office. Defendant – In criminal justice, a person who is formally charged with a crime by filing an indictment in court. Arrest Warrant – In criminal proceedings a series of orders issued by a bailiff that order a law enforcement officer to perform a specific act. Plea – In criminal proceedings, a defendant`s formal response to the charge contained in a complaint, notice or indictment that he or she is guilty or not guilty of the accused offence. not guilty – (1) plea in criminal practice that denies allegations of information, indictment or complaint and creates a general problem; (2) Acquittal in connection with a criminal offence.

Indictment – The hearing before a court competent in criminal proceedings, where the identity of the accused is established, the defendant is informed of the charges and his rights, and the defendant is required to plead guilty. Plea bargaining – A procedure in which the prosecution and the defence make a decision on the criminal proceedings under mutually acceptable conditions without trial. Grand Jury – A group of individuals selected under the law who swore to hear evidence against the accused and determine whether there is sufficient evidence to bring these individuals to justice, investigate criminal activity in general, and investigate the conduct of public bodies and officials. Arrest – Placing a person in detention under the law to charge them with a crime. The law is complicated and it is designed so that those who are knowledgeable and experienced have the upper hand. Experienced defense lawyers are the best hope of a person accused of a crime or misdemeanour. Each case is defensible, and with proper representation, you may be able to avoid a conviction and jail time. A defendant who does not understand the common terminology and acronyms of criminal lawyers and judges runs the risk of making a decision to his or her detriment. The defence lawyer must patiently explain the nature of the charges, possible defences and sentences available to the judge at sentencing. dismissal – (1) In legal proceedings, in general, the settlement of an action, dispute, claim or similar without hearing the issues; (2) The decision of a court to terminate the decision on all outstanding charges in criminal proceedings or on all pending charges against a particular defendant in criminal proceedings, thereby terminating the judicial proceedings in the case and terminating the defendant`s jurisdiction over such charges definitively or provisionally. Trial – In criminal proceedings, the consideration of questions of fact and law in a case before a court in order to render a judgment on the conviction or acquittal of the accused.

Probation – (1) release of a person from a detention centre before the expiry of the maximum prison sentence, based on his or her good conduct; (2) Release of a person, without bail, for the duration of a criminal offence. Criminal offence – (1) Any violation of criminal law; (2) Violation of criminal law that should not be considered a criminal or administrative offence. Alibi – Defense of a criminal act that was not present at the scene of a crime at the time of its commission. District Prosecutor – A lawyer who is the elected or appointed head of a law enforcement agency and whose official task is to conduct criminal proceedings on behalf of the public against persons accused of committing crimes; and any lawyer to assist the Attorney-General. Expeditious Trial – The right of the accused to an immediate trial, as guaranteed by the Sixth Amendment of the United States Constitution: “In all criminal investigations, the accused shall enjoy the right to a prompt and public trial.” remittitur – judicial procedure by which an appeals court transmits to the court documents and proceedings pending under it, as well as its decision, for the further processing and registration of the judgment, which are necessary after the decision of the Court of Appeal. nunc pro tunc (now for then) – Currently considered to have occurred at an earlier date. Prison – A state or federal institution with the power to care for adults sentenced to prison. Testify – Testify as a witness under oath. Bref – Document issued by a judicial officer who orders or prohibits the execution of a specific act. Limitation period – Statutory decree that limits the period within which certain actions or proceedings must be brought.

Oath – A solemn vow of faithful execution or truthfulness that invokes responsibility to a supreme being. Filing – An obligation signed by the guarantors for the person designated as the principal to appear as required by a court. Bail – (1) In order to effect the release of an accused of detention, in exchange for the promise that he will appear at a certain place and at a certain time and submit to the jurisdiction and judgment of the court, secured by a promise to pay the court a certain amount of money or property if the person does not show up. (2) Money or property pledged to the court or actually deposited with the court in order to release a person from lawful detention. Indictment – A formal, written charge submitted to the court by a grand jury alleging that one or more specific persons committed one or more specific crimes, usually a crime. Punishment – The sentence that a court imposes on a person convicted of a crime. Order -n. – (1) mandate, command, rule, direction; (2) the written instructions of a court; V. (3) direct, govern, demand. Certain sentences – A prison sentence where the prison sentence is of a certain length, for example three years.

see say (to tell the truth) – Pre-examination of a witness or jury to test competence for service as a witness or jury. Advance communication – A pre-litigation procedure in which a party to a lawsuit obtains from his opponent information about facts or documents held or controlled by the opponent. Misdemeanour – A crime punishable by imprisonment, usually in a local prison, for a period for which the cap is required by law in a particular jurisdiction, usually limited to one year or less. Lawyer – A person trained in law, admitted before the bar of a particular jurisdiction and authorized to advise, represent and act on behalf of others in legal proceedings. Competence – (1) reason, mental capacity, functional suitability; (2) Qualification, capacity, adequacy, capacity. Evidence – Any form of evidence used to induce faith or establish a fact. Agree – Formally agree with the opponent in a court case on an issue that is part of the procedure or protocol. Probation – A sentence that grants parole as long as certain driving conditions are met. Mandatory challenge – exercised by one of the parties to a jury trial to reject a potential jury without giving a reason for the challenge. Appeal – As a general rule, the request that an appellate court reconsider and set aside (set aside) or vary the judgment, decision or order of a lower court; also the legal proceedings or the stages of the legal proceedings arising from such a request. Exhibit -n.

(1) Physical evidence submitted for review; (2) the collection of articles exhibited in a public exhibition; -v. (3) show, exhibit, present for inspection, produce in public. reasonable doubt – (1) that state of mind which, after careful and impartial examination of all the evidence, does not attain the moral certainty of guilt; (2) Uncertainty as to the guilt that can be substantiated after the examination of all the evidence. Objection – (1) Declaration of rejection; (2) unfavourable reason or argument. Final sentence – A sentence of one year or less served in a prison. Judgment – (1) In the broadest sense, any decision or disposition of a court. (2) The decision of a court that the accused is acquitted or convicted of the offence or offences. Removal hearing – A hearing to determine whether the court prohibits the introduction of certain statements, documents or objects as evidence in a trial. Unable to stand trial – The finding of a court that an accused is mentally incapable of understanding the nature of the charges and proceedings against him or her, consulting with a lawyer, or assisting in his or her own defence.